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Publications

Please send an e-mail (barb.lachenbruch@oregonstate.edu) if you would like any reprints.

2017

Noyer, E., B. Lachenbruch, J. Dlouha, C. Collet, J. Ruelle, F. Ninger, and M. Fournier. 2017. Xylem traits in European beech (Fagus sylvatical L.) display a large plasticity in respone to canopy release.  Annals of Forest Science. DOI 10.1007/s13595-017-0634-1.

Voelker, S. L., M. C. Stambaugh, J. R. Brooks, F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, and R. P. Guyette. 2017. Evidence that higher CO2 increases tree growth sensitivity to temperature: a comparison of modern and paleo oaks. Oecologia 183: 1183-1195.

2015

Hacke, U. G., B. Lachenbruch, J. Pittermann, S. Mayr, J.-C. Domec, and P. J. Schulte. 2015. The hydraulic architecture of conifers.  In Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy, U. Hacke (ed.). Springer. 39-74.

Kavanaugh, M. T., K. S. Boersma, S. L. Close, L. M. Ganio, L. Hooven, and B. Lachenbruch. 2015. Advancing toward profesorship in biology, ecology, and Earth system sciences. pp 166-184, In Foreward to Professorship in STEM:  Inclusive Faculty Development Strategies That Work, C. Mavripilis (ed.). Elsevier.

McCulloh, K. A., D. M. Johnson, J. Petitmermet, B. McNellis, F. C. Meinzer, and B. Lachenbruch. 2015. A comparison of hydraulic architecture in three similarly sized woody species differing n their maximum potential height.  Tree Physiology 35: 723-731.

2014

Lachenbruch, B. L. and K. A. McCulloh. 2014. Traits, properties, and performance: how woody plants combine hydraulic and mechanical functions in a cell, tissue, or whole plant. Tansley Review. New Phytologist 204: 747-764.

Marias, D. E., F. C. Meinzer, D. R. Woodruff, D. C. Shaw, S. L. Voelker, J. R. Brooks, B. Lachenbruch, K. Falk and J. McKay. Impacts of drwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes. Tree Physiology 34: 595-607.

Saffell, B. J., F. C. Meinzer, S. L. Voelker, D. C. Shaw, J. R. Brooks, B. Lachenbruch, and J. McKay.  2014. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir. Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 766-779..

Saffell, B. J., F. C. Meinzer, D. R. Woodruff, D. C. Shaw, S. L. Voelker, B. Lachenbruch and K. Falk. 2014. Seasonal carbohydrate dynamics and growth in Douglas-fir trees experiencing chronic, fungal-mediated reduction in functional leaf area.  New Phytologist 34: 218-228.

Voelker, S. L., F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, J. R. Brooks and R. P. Guyette. 2014.  Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapor pressure deficit and irradiance.  Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 766-779.

2013

Barnard, D. M., B. Lachenbruch, K. A. McCulloh, P. Kitin and F. C. Meinzer. 2013. Do ray cells provide a pathway for radial-apoplastic water movement in the stems of conifer trees? American Journal of Botany 100: 322-331.

2012

Crivellaro, A., K. McCulloh, F. A. Jones, and B. Lachenbruch. 2012.  Anatomy and mechanical and hydraulic needs of woody climbers contrasted with subshrubs on the Island of Cyprus. IAWA J. 33: 355-373.

Domec, J.-C., B. Lachenbruch, M. Pruyn, and R. Spicer. 2012. Age-related changes in sapwood area, leaf area, and xylem permeability in two coniferous species with contrasting sapwood areas. Annals of Forest Science 69: 17-27.

Lens, F. L. Cooper, M. A. Gandolfo, A. Groover, P. Jaiswal, B. Lachenbruch, R. Spicer, M. Staton, D. W. Stevenson, R. L. Walls, and J. Wegrzyn. 2012. An extension of the plant ontology project supporting wood anatomy and development research. IAWA J. 33: 113-117.

Hacke, U. G., A. L. Jacobsen, R. B. Pratt, C. Maurel, and B. Lachenbruch. 2012. New research on plant–water relations examines the molecular, structural, and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to their environment. New Phytologist 196: 345-348.

McCulloh, K. A., D. M. Johnson, F. C. Meinzer, S. L. Voelker, B. Lachenbruch, and J.-C. Domec. 2012. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees.  Plant Cell and Environment 35: 116-125.

Newton, M., E. C. Cole, B. Lachenbruch and J. M. Robbins. 2012. Branch size and longevity linked to initial plantation spacing and rectangularity in young Douglas-fir.  Forest Ecology and Management 266: 75-82.

Voelker, S. L., P.-E. Noirot-Cosson, M. C. Stambaugh, E. R. McMurry, F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, and R. P. Guyette. 2012.  Spring temperature responses of oaks are synchronous with North Atlantic conditions during the Late Quaternary.  Ecological Monographs 82: 149-168.

2011

Barnard, D. M., F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, K. A. McCulloh, D. M. Johnson, and D. R. Woodruff. 2011. Climate-related trends in sapwood biophysical properties in two conifers: avoidance of hydraulic dysfunction through coordinated adjustments in xylem efficiency, safety and capacitance. Plant Cell and Environment 34: 643-644.

Hinckley, T., B. Lachenbruch, F. C. Meinzer, and T. E. Dawson. 2011. The whole-lifespan perspective on integration of structure and function in trees. pp. 3-30 in F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, and T. Dawson, Eds, Size and age-related changes in tree structure and function, Springer, Dordrecht.

Lachenbruch, B., J. Moore, and R. Evans. 2011. Radial variation in wood structure and function in woody plants, and hypotheses for its occurrence. p. 121-164 in F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, and T. E. Dawson, Eds, Size and age-related changes in tree structure and function, Springer, Dordrecht.

Lachenbruch, B. 2011. Physical models as an aid for teaching wood anatomy. IAWA J. 32: 301-312.

McCulloh, K. A., F. C. Meinzer, J. S. Sperry, B. Lachenbruch, S. L. Voelker, D. R. Woodruff, and J.-C. Domec. 2011. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density. Oecologia 167: 27-37.

McCulloh, K. A., D. M. Johnson, F. C. Meinzer, and B. Lachenbruch. 2011. An annual pattern of native embolism in upper branches of four tall conifer species. American Journal of Botany 98: 1007-1015.

Meinzer, F. C., B. Lachenbruch, and T. E. Dawson, Eds. 2011. Size and age-related changes in tree structure and function, Springer, Dordrecht. 510 pp.

Voelker, S, B. Lachenbruch, F. C. Meinzer, P. B. Kitin and S. H. Strauss. 2011. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival. Plant Cell and Environment 34: 655-668.

Voelker, S. L., B. Lachenbruch, F. C. Meinzer, and S. H. Strauss. 2011. Reduced wood stiffness and strength, and altered stem form, in young antisense 4CL transgenic poplars with reduced lignin contents. New Phytologist 189:1096-1109.

2010

Kitin, P., S. L. Voelker, B. Lachenbruch, H. Beeckman, R. C. Meinzer, and S. H. Strauss. 2010. Tyloses and phenolic deposits in xylem vessels impede water transport in low-lignin transgenic poplars: a study by cryo-fluorescence microscopy. Plant Physiology 154: 1-12.

Lachenbruch, B., F. Droppelmann, C. Balocchi, M. Peredo, and E. Perez. (In press) Stem form and compression wood formation in young Pinus radiata trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 26-34.

Lachenbruch, B., G. R. Johnson, G. Downes, and R. Evans. (In press) Relationships of density, microfibril angle, and sound velocity with stiffness and strength in mature wood of Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 55-64.

McCulloh, K. A., J. S. Sperry, B. Lachenbruch, F. C. Meinzer and P. B. Reich. 2010. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests. New Phytologist 186: 439-450.

Meinzer, F. C., K. A. McCulloh, B. Lachenbruch, D. R. Woodruff, and D. M. Johnson. 2010. The blind men and the elephant: The impact of context and scale in evaluating conflicts between plant hydraulic safety and efficiency. Oecologia 164: 287-296.

Voelker, S. L., B. Lachenbruch, F. C. Meinzer, M. Jourdes, C. Ki, A. M. Patten, L. B. Davin, N. G. Lewis, G. A. Tuskan, L. Gunter, S. R. Decker, M. J. Selig, P. Kitin, and S. H. Strauss. 2010. Antisense down-regulation of 4CL expression alters lignification, tree growth and saccharification potential of field-grown poplar. Plant Physiology 154: 874-886.

2009

Collins, B. R., J. L. Parke, B. Lachenbruch, and E. M. Hansen. 2009. The effects of Phytophthora ramorum infection on hydraulic conductivity and tylosis formation in tanoak sapwood. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39: 1766-1776.

DeBell, J. and B. Lachenbruch. 2009. Heartwood/sapwood variation of western redcedar as influenced by cultural treatments and position in tree. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 2026-2032.

Domec, J.C., J. M. Warren, F. C. Meinzer, and B. Lachenbruch. 2009. Safety factors for xylem failure by implosion and air-seeding within roots, trunks and branches of young and old conifer trees. IAWA J. 30: 100-120.

McCulloh, K. A., J. A. Sperry, F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, and C.Atala. 2009. Murray's law, the 'Yarrum' optimum, and the hydraulic architecture of compound leaves. New Phytologist 184: 234-244.

Meinzer, F. C., D. M. Johnson, B. Lachenbruch, K. A. McCulloh, and D. R. Woodruff. 2009. Xylem hydraulic safety margins in woody plants: coordination of stomatal control of xylem tension with hydraulic capacitance. Functional Ecology 23: 922-930.

Woodruff, D. R., F. C. Meinzer, B. Lachenbruch, and D. M. Johnson. 2009. Coordination of leaf structure and gas exchange along a height gradient in a tall conifer. Tree Physiology 29: 261-272.

2008

Domec, J.-C. B. Lachenbruch, F. C. Meinzer, D. R. Woodruff, J. M. Warren, and K. A. McCulloh. 2008. Maximum height in a conifer is associated with conflicting requirements for xylem design. Proc. National Academy of Sciences 105(33): 12069-12074.

Dunham, S. M., L. M. Ganio, A. I. Gitelman, and B. Lachenbruch. 2008. Partitioning variation in Doulas-fir xylem properties among multiple scales via a Bayesian hierarchical model. Tree Physiology 28: 1017-1024.

Taylor, M. A. J. R. Brooks, B. Lachenbruch, J. J. Morrell, and S. Voelker. 2008. Correlation of carbon isotope ratios in the cellulose and wood extractives of Douglas-fir? Dendrochronologia 26: 125-131.

Woodruff, D. R., F. C. Meinzer, and B. Lachenbruch. 2008. Height-related trends in leaf xylem anatomy and shoot hydraulic characteristics in a tall conifer: safety versus efficiency in foliar water transport. New Phytologist 180: 90-99.

2007

Domec, J-C., F. C. Meinzer,B. Lachenbruch, and J. Housset. 2007. Dynamic variation in sapwood specific conductivity in six woody species. Tree Physiology 27:1389-1400.

Dunham, S. M., B. Lachenbruch, and L. M. Ganio. 2007. Bayesian analysis of Douglas-fir hydraulic architecture at multiple scales. Trees 21: 65-78.

Parke, J. L., E. Oh, S. Voelker, E. M. Hansen, G. Buckles, and B. Lachenbruch. 2007. Phytophthora ramorum colonizes tanoak xylem and is associated with reduced stem water transport. Phytopathology 97: 1558-1567.

McCulloh, K. A., K. Winter, F. C. Meinzer, M. Garcia, J. Aranda, and B. Lachenbruch. 2007. A comparison of daily water use estimates derived from constant heat sap-flow probe values and gravimetric measurements in pot-grown saplings. Tree Physiology 27: 1355-1360.

Peterson, M. G., H. R. Dietterich, and B. Lachenbruch. 2007. Do Douglas-fir branches and roots have juvenile wood? Wood and Fiber Science 39: 651-660.

Silva, J. A., B. L. Gartner, and J. J. Morrell. 2007. Towards the development of accelerated methods for assessing the durability of wood plastic composites. Journal of Testing and Evaluation 35: 203-210.

Taylor, A. M., J. R. Brooks, B. Lachenbruch, and J. J. Morrell. 2007. Radial patterns of carbon isotopes in the xylem extractives and cellulose of Douglas-fir. Tree Physiology 27: 921-927.

Woodruff, D. R., K. A. McCulloh, J. M. Warren, F. C. Meinzer, and B. Lachenbruch. 2007. Impacts of tree height on leaf hydraulic architecture and stomatal control in Douglas-fir. Plant Cell and Environment 30:559-569.

2006

DeBell, D. S., C. A. Harrington, B. L. Gartner, and R. Singleton. 2006. Time and distance to clear wood in pruned red alder saplings. In Red alder - a state of knowledge, R. L. Deal and C. A. Harrington, eds. General Technical Report PNW-GTR 669. USDA Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. 150 p.

Domec, J.-C., B. Lachenbruch, and F. C. Meinzer. 2006. Bordered pit structure and function determine spatial patterns of air-seeding thresholds in xylem of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii; Pinaceae) trees. American Journal of Botany 93: 1588-1600.

Domec, J.-C., F. C. Meinzer, B. L. Gartner, and D. Woodruff. 2006. Transpiration-induced axial and radial tension gradients in trunks of Douglas-fir trees. Tree Physiology 26: 275-284.

Gartner, B. L. 2006. Prediction of wood structural patterns in trees using ecological models of plant water relations. In D. D. Stokke and L. H. Groom, eds., Characterization of the Cellulosic Cell Wall, Ch. 4, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA., p. 38-52.

Gartner, B. L. and G. R. Johnson. 2006. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 2351-2356.

Johnson, G. R. and B. L. Gartner. 2006. Genetic variation in basic density and modulus of elasticity of coastal Douglas-fir. Tree Genetics & Genomes 3: 25-33. (pdf) The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

Marshall, H. D., G. E. Murphy, and B. Lachenbruch. 2006. Effects of bark thickness estimates on optimal log merchandising. Forest Products Journal 56(11/12):87-92.

Meinzer, F. C., J. R. Brooks, J.-C. Domec, B. L. Gartner, J. M. Warren, D. R. Woodruff, K. Bible, and D. C. Shaw. 2006. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques. Plant, Cell and Environment 29: 105-114.

Renninger, H. and B. L. Gartner. 2006. No correlation between latewood formation and leader growth in Douglas-fir saplings. IAWA J. 183-192.

Renninger, H. R., B. L. Gartner and F. C. Meinzer. 2006. Effects of release from suppression on wood functional characteristics in young Douglas-fir and western hemlock. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 2038-2046.

Taylor, A. M., B. L. Gartner, and J. J. Morrell. 2006. Western redcedar extractives: Is there a role for the silviculturist? Forest Products Journal 56: 58-63.

Taylor, A. M., B. L. Gartner, J. J. Morrell, and K. Tsunoda. 2006. Effects of heartwood extractive fractions of Thuja plicata and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis on wood degradation by termites or fungi. Journal of Wood Science 52: 147-153.

2005

Domec, J.-C., M. L. Pruyn, and B. L. Gartner. 2005. Axial and radial profiles in conductivities, water storage and native embolism in trunks of young and old growth ponderosa pine trees. Plant, Cell and Environment. 128:1103-1113.

Gartner, B. L. 2005. Assessing wood characteristics and wood quality in intensively managed plantations. Journal of Forestry, March: 75-77.

Gartner, B. L. and F. C. Meinzer. 2005. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage. In N. M. Holbrook and M. A. Zwieniecki, eds. Vascular Transport in Plants. Elsevier/Academic Press, Oxford. pp. 307-331.

Gartner, B. L., J. M. Robbins, and M. Newton. 2005. Effects of pruning on wood density and tracheid length in young Douglas-fir. Wood and Fiber Science 37: 304-312.

Grotta, A. T., B.L. Gartner, S. R. Radosevich, and M. Huso. 2005. Influence of red alder competition on cambial phenology and latewood formation in Douglas-fir. IAWA J. 26:309-324

Grotta, A. T., R. J. Leichti, B. L. Gartner, and G. R. Johnson. 2005. Effect of growth ring orientation and placement of earlywood and latewood on MOE and MOR of very-small clear Douglas-fir beams. Wood and Fiber Science 37: 207-212.

Johnson, G. R., A. Grotta, B. L. Gartner, and G. Downes. 2005. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35:331-339.

Maton, C. and B. L. Gartner. 2005. Do gymnosperm needles pull water through the xylem produced in the same year as the needle? American Journal of Botany 92: 123-13.

Olszyk, D., M. Apple, B. L. Gartner, R. Spicer, C. Wise, E. Buckner, A. Benson-Scott, and D. Tingey. 2005. Xeromorphy increases in shoots of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco seedlings with exposure to elevated temperature but not elevated CO2. Trees: Structure and Function. 19:552-553.

Pruyn, M. L., M.E. Harmon and B. L. Gartner. 2005. Storage versus substrate limitation to bole respiratory potential in two coniferous tree species of contrasting sapwood width. Journal of Experimental Botany 56:2637-2649.

2004

DeBell, D. S., R. Singleton, B. L. Gartner, and D. D. Marshall. 2004. Wood density of young-growth western hemlock: relation to ring age, radial growth, stand density, and site quality. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 2433-2442.

Gartner, B. L., J. R. Moore, and B. A. Gardiner. 2004. Gas in stems: abundance and potential consequences for tree biomechanics. Tree Physiology 24: 1239-1250.

Grotta, A. T., B. L. Gartner, and S. R. Radosevich. 2004. Influence of species proportion and timing of establishment on stem quality in mixed red alder/Douglas-fir plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 863-873.

2003

Gartner, B. 2003. Teaching wood anatomy - tips to make your classes more lively and engaging. IAWA J. 24: 452-455.

Bouffier, L. A., B. L. Gartner, and J.-C. Domec. 2003. Wood density and hydraulic properties of ponderosa pine from the Willamette Valley vs. the Cascade mountains. Wood and Fiber Science 35: 217-233.

Cherubini, P., B. L. Gartner, R. Tognetti, O. U. Bräker, W. Schoch and J. L. Innes. 2003. Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from Mediterranean climates. Biological Reviews 78: 119-148.

Domec, J. C. and B. L. Gartner. 2003. Relationship between growth rates and xylem hydraulic characteristics in young, mature, and old-growth Ponderosa pine trees. Plant, Cell and Environment 26: 471-483.

Gartner, B. L., J. Roy, and R. Huc. 2003. Effects of tension wood on specific conductivity and vulnerability to embolism of Quercus ilex seedlings grown at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Tree Physiology 23: 387-395.

Johnson, G. R., B. L. Gartner, D. Maguire, and A. Kanaskie. 2003. Influence of Bravo fungicide applications on wood density and moisture content of Swiss-needle cast affected Douglas-fir trees. Forest Ecology and Management 186: 339-348.

Morrell, J. J., A. Paillard, D. Gnoblei, B. L. Gartner, M. R. Milota, and R. G. Rhatigan. 2003. Variations in longitudinal permeability of coastal western hemlock. Wood and Fiber Science 35: 397-400.

Pruyn, M. L. M. E. Harmon, and B. L. Gartner. 2003. Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central Cascades of Oregon. Oecologia 137: 10-21.

Singleton, R., D. S. DeBell, and B. L. Gartner. 2003. Effect of extraction on wood density of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (RAF.) SARG.). Wood and Fiber Science 35: 363-369.

Singleton, R., D. S. DeBell, D. D. Marshall, and B. L. Gartner. 2003. Eccentricity and fluting in young-growth western hemlock in Oregon. Western Journal of Forestry 18: 1-8.

Taylor, A. M., B. L. Gartner, and J. J. Morrell. 2003. Co-incident variations in growth rate and heartwood extractive concentration in Douglas-fir. Forest Ecology and Management 186: 257-260.

2002

DeBell, D. S., R. Singleton, C. A. Harrington, and B. L. Gartner. 2002. Wood density and fiber length in young Populus stems: relation to clone, age, growth rate, and pruning. Wood and Fiber Science 34: 529-539.

Domec, J. C. and B. L. Gartner. 2002. Age- and position-related changes in hydraulic versus mechanical dysfunction of xylem: inferring the design criteria for Douglas-fir wood structure. Tree Physiology 22: 91-104.

Domec, J. C. and B. L. Gartner. 2002. How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood? Journal of Experimental Botany 53: 2369-2379.

Gartner, B. L., R. Aloni, R. Funada, A. N. Lichtfuss-Gautier, and F. A. Roig. 2002. Clues for dendrochronology from studies of wood structure and function. Dendrochronologia 20: 53-61.

Gartner, B. L., E. M. North, G. R. Johnson, and R. Singleton. 2002. Effects of live crown on vertical patterns of wood density and growth in Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 439-447.

Gartner, B. L. 2002. Sapwood and inner bark quantities in relation to leaf area and wood density in Douglas-fir. IAWA Journal 23: 267-285.

Pruyn, M. L., B. L. Gartner, and M. E. Harmon. 2002. Within-stem variation of respiration in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) trees. New Phytologist 154: 359-372.

Pruyn, M. L., B. L. Gartner, and M. E. Harmon. 2002. Respiratory potential in sapwood of old versus young ponderosa pine trees in the Pacific Northwest. Tree Physiology 22: 105-116.

Spicer, R. and B. L. Gartner. 2002. Compression wood has little impact on the water relations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings despite a large effect on shoot hydraulic properties. New Phytologist 154: 633-640.

Taylor, A. M., B. L. Gartner, and J. J. Morrell. 2002. Heartwood formation and natural durability -- a review. Wood and Fiber Science 34: 587-611.

Wilson, B. F. and B. L. Gartner. 2002. Effects of phloem girdling in conifers on apical control of branches, growth allocation and air in wood. Tree Physiology 22: 347-353.

2001

DeBell, D. S., C. Keyes, and B. L. Gartner. 2001. Wood density of Eucalyptus saligna grown in Hawaiian plantations: effects of silvicultural practices and relation to growth rate. Australian Forestry 64: 106-110.

Domec, J. C. and B. L. Gartner. 2001. Cavitation and water storage capacity in bole xylem segments of mature and young Douglas-fir trees. Trees 15: 204-214.

Gartner, B. L. 2001. Multitasking and tradeoffs in stems, and the costly dominion of domatia. Commentary on "Leaf-stem allometry, hollow stems, and the evolution of caulinary domatia in myrmecophytes" by C. Brouat and D. McKey. New Phytologist 151: 311-313.

Spicer, R. and B. L. Gartner. 2001. The effects of cambial age and position within the stem on specific conductivity in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sapwood. Trees 15: 222-229.

2000

Gartner, B. L., D. C. Baker, and R. Spicer. 2000. Distribution and vitality of xylem rays in relation to tree leaf area in Douglas-fir. IAWA Journal 21: 389-401.

Spicer, R., R. Darbyshire, and B. L. Gartner. 2000. Sinuous stem growth in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) plantation: growth patterns wood quality effects. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 761-768.

1999

DeBell, J. D., J. J. Morrell, and B. L. Gartner. 1999. Within-stem variation in tropolone content and decay resistance of second-growth western redcedar. Forest Science 45: 101-107.

Gartner, B. L., J. J. Morrell, C. M. Freitag, and R. Spicer. 1999. Heartwood decay resistance by vertical and radial position in Douglas-fir trees from a young stand. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 1993-1996.

Kavanagh, K. L., B. J. Bond, S. N. Aitken, B. L. Gartner, and S. Knowe. 1999. Root and shoot vulnerability to xylem cavitation in four populations of Douglas-fir seedlings. Tree Physiology 19: 31-37.

1998

DeBell, J. D., B. L. Gartner, and D. S. DeBell. 1998. Fiber length in young Populus stems grown at extremely different rates. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 603-608.

Morrell, J. J. and B. L. Gartner. 1998. Wood as a material. In A. Bruce and J. W. Palfreyman, eds., Forest Products Biotechnology, pp. 1-14. Taylor & Francis, London. Spicer, R. and B. L. Gartner. 1998. How does a gymnosperm branch (Pseudotsuga menziesii) assume the hydraulic status of a main stem when it takes over as leader? Plant Cell and Environment 21: 1063-1070.

Spicer, R. and B. L. Gartner. 1998. Hydraulic properties of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) branches and branch halves with reference to compression wood. Tree Physiology 19: 777-784.

1997

DeBell, J. D. and B. L. Gartner. 1997. Stem characteristics on the lower log of 35-year old western redcedar grown at several spacings. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 12: 9-15.

DeBell, J. D., J. J. Morrell, and B. L. Gartner. 1997. Tropolone content of increment cores as an indicator of decay resistance in western redcedar. Wood and Fiber Science 29: 364-369.

Gartner, B. L. 1997. Trees have higher longitudinal growth strains in their stems than in their roots. International Journal of Plant Sciences 158: 418-423.

Gartner, B. L., H. Lei, and M. R. Milota. 1997. Variation in the anatomy and specific gravity of wood within and between trees of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Wood and Fiber Science 29: 10-20.

Lei, H., B. L. Gartner, and M. R. Milota. 1997. Effect of growth rate on the anatomy, specific gravity, and bending properties of wood from 7-year-old red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 80-85.

1996

Gartner, B. L. 1996. Does photosynthetic bark have a role in the production of core vs. outer wood? Wood and Fiber Science 28: 53-61.

Lei, H., M. R. Milota, and B. L. Gartner. 1996. Between- and within-tree variation in the anatomy and specific gravity of wood in Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl.). IAWA Journal 17: 445-461.

Wilson, B. R. and B. L. Gartner. 1996. Lean in red alder (Alnus rubra): growth stress, tension wood and righting response. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1951-1956.

1995

Gartner, B. L. 1995. Wind-shelters as safe sites for establishment of Lupinus arboreus, a coastal species. Madroño 42: 1-11.

Gartner, B. L. (editor). 1995. Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology. Academic Press, San Diego. 440 pp.

Gartner, B. L. 1995. Patterns of xylem variation within a tree and their hydraulic and mechanical consequences. In B. L. Gartner, ed., Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology, pp. 125-149, Academic Press, San Diego.

1994

Gartner, B. L. 1994. Root biomechanics and whole-plant allocation patterns: responses of tomato plants to stem flexure. Journal of Experimental Botany 45: 1647-1654.

1993

Gartner, B. L., C. Wasser, E. Rodriguez, and W. L Epstein. 1993. Seasonal variation of urushiol content in poison oak. American Journal of Contact Dermatitis 4: 33-36.

1991

Gartner, B. L. 1991. Structural stability and architecture of vines vs. shrubs of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum. Ecology 72: 2005-2015.

Gartner, B. L. 1991. Relative growth rates of vines and shrubs of western poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (Anacardiaceae). American Journal of Botany 10: 1345-1353.

Gartner, B. L. 1991. Is the climbing habit of poison oak ecotypic? Functional Ecology 5: 696-704.

Gartner, B. L. 1991. Stem hydraulic properties of vines vs. shrubs of western poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum. Oecologia 87: 180-189.

Mooney, H. A. and B. L. Gartner. 1991. Reserve economy of vines. In F. E. Putz and H. A. Mooney, eds., Biology of Vines, pp. 161-179. Cambridge University Press.

1990

Gartner, B. L., S. H. Bullock, H. A. Mooney, V. B. Brown, and J. L. Whitbeck. 1990. Water transport properties of vine and tree stems in a tropical deciduous forest. American Journal of Botany 77: 742-749.

1989

Gartner, B. L. 1989. Breakage and regrowth of Piper species in rain forest understory. Biotropica 21: 303-307.

1986

Gartner, B. L., F. S. Chapin, III, and G. R. Shaver. 1986. Reproduction of Eriophorum vaginatum by seed in Alaskan tussock tundra. Journal of Ecology 74: 1-18.

Shaver, G. R., F. Chapin, III, and B. L. Gartner. 1986. Factors limiting seasonal growth and peak biomass accumulation in Eriophorum vaginatum in Alaskan tussock tundra. Journal of Ecology 74: 257-278.

1983

Gartner, B. L., F. S. Chapin, III, and G. R. Shaver. 1983. Demographic patterns of seedling establishment and growth of native graminoids in an Alaskan tundra disturbance. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 965-980.